In this study, we explored the use of super-resolution track-density imaging (TDI) for neuroanatomical characterization of the adult zebrafish brain. We compared the quality of image contrast and resolution obtained with T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor-based imaging (DTI), TDI, and histology. The anatomical structures visualized in 5 μm TDI maps corresponded with histology. Moreover, the super-resolution property and the local-directional information provided by directionally encoded color TDI facilitated delineation of a larger number of brain regions, commissures and small white matter tracks when compared to conventional MRI and DTI. In total, we were able to visualize 17 structures that were previously unidentifiable using MR microimaging, such as the four layers of the optic tectum. This study demonstrates the use of TDI for characterization of the adult zebrafish brain as a pivotal tool for future phenotypic examination of transgenic models of neurological diseases.