Background: It remains largely unknown whether endothelial biomarkers can be used to predict thromboembolism in critically ill patients with an acquired coagulopathy. Materials & methods: The ability of syndecan-1, P-selectin and microRNA expressions to predict thromboembolism were assessed in 40 critically ill coagulopathic patients. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for syndecan-1, P-selectin and the four differentially expressed microRNAs - determined by real-time qPCR analysis - to predict thromboembolism (n = 10, 25%) were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.52-0.89), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-0.95) and >0.80, respectively. Syndecan-1 and P-selectin concentrations were also significantly correlated with one another (R = 0.41, p = 0.008). Conclusion: Endothelial function biomarkers, including endothelial microRNA expressions, were associated with subsequent thromboembolism in critically ill patients who had a deranged coagulation profile.