Each year many thousands of cases of human arbovirus infection are notified within Australia, acquired either within Australia or when travelling overseas(1). These cause diseases varying from fever and aches, to debilitating joint disease, to encephalitis and death. The arboviruses endemic to Australia are all maintained in a cycle between mosquitoes (and rarely midges) and a bird or mammalian host(2). As such, the virus activity is dependent on rainfall and temperature conditions that are conducive to mosquito breeding, and to virus replication and amplification (Figure 1). Those conditions being met, there have to be suitable amplifying animal hosts nearby, and their absence is one of the factors that protects most of the larger urban populations in Australia. Then, of course, humans have to be exposed to the infected mosquitoes to get disease.