Nodular lymphocyte Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease for which the optimal therapy is unknown. We hypothesized that rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) could decrease rates of relapse and transformation. We retrospectively reviewed patients with NLPHL diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 confirmed by central pathologic review. Fifty-nine had sufficient treatment and follow-up data for analysis. We described progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and histologic transformation according to treatment strategy and explored prognostic factors for PFS and OS. The median age at diagnosis was 41 years; 75% were male, and 61% had a typical growth pattern. Twenty-seven patients were treated with R-CHOP with an overall response rate of 100% (complete responses 89%). The median follow-up was 6.7 years, and the estimated 5- and 10-year PFS rates for patients treated with R-CHOP were 88.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.4% to 96.1%) and 59.3 (95% CI, 25.3% to 89.1%), respectively. Excluding patients with histologic transformation at diagnosis, the 5-year cumulative incidence of histologic transformation was 2% (95% CI, 87% to 100%). No patient treated with R-CHOP experienced transformation. A high-risk score from the German Hodgkin Study Group was adversely prognostic for OS (P 5 .036), whereas male sex and splenic involvement were adversely prognostic for PFS (P 5 .006 and .002, respectively) but not OS. Our data support a potential role for R-CHOP in patients with NLPHL. Larger prospective trials are needed to define the optimal chemotherapy regimen.