Projects per year
In recent years there have been a significant number of demonstrations of small metallic and plasmonic lasers. The vast majority of these demonstrations have been for optically pumped devices. Electrically pumped devices are advantageous for applications and could demonstrate concepts not amenable for optical pumping. However, there have been relatively few demonstrations of electrically pumped small metal cavity lasers. This lack of results is due to the following reasons: There are limited types of electrically pumped gain medium available. There is a significantly greater level of complexity required in the fabrication of electrically pumped devices. Finally, the required components for electrical pumping restrict cavity design options and furthermore make it intrinsically more difficult to achieve lasing. This review looks at the motivation for electrically pumped nanolasers, the key issues that need addressing for them to be realized, the results that have been achieved so far including devices where lasing has not been achieved, and potential new directions that could be pursued.