Background: The ROCKET AF study evaluated once-daily rivaroxaban versus dose-adjusted warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this analysis, we compared rivaroxaban with warfarin in patients with AF from China, East Asia, and the rest of the world (ROW). Methods and results: We assessed baseline demographics and interaction of treatment effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin among patients from mainland China, other East Asian countries, and ROW. Of the 14,236 patients enrolled in the per-protocol population, 495 were from mainland China, 433 from other East-Asian regions, and 13,308 from the rest of the world (ROW). At baseline, patients from China had significantly higher rates of previous stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) compared with patients from other East Asian regions and ROW (79.6%, 44.6%, 51.6% respectively; p. <. 0.0001) and lower rates of VKA use (33.7%, 66.7%, 63.4%, respectively; p. <. 0.0001). The rates of stroke or systemic embolism among those on warfarin while on treatment was 5.23% in patients from China, 1.82% in those from other East Asian regions, and 2.07% from ROW; on rivaroxaban, the rates were 2.29% in patients from China, 1.86% in those from other east Asian regions, and 1.67% from ROW. There were no significant treatment-by-region interactions for any efficacy or safety outcome (all p. >. 0.12). Numerically higher rates of intracranial bleeding were seen in patients from China receiving warfarin versus rivaroxaban. Conclusions: In patients from China, rates of intracranial hemorrhage were numerically lower among those receiving rivaroxaban and consistent with the overall trial. Clinical trial registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00403767.