Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes

Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M. Migdadi, Salem S. Alghamdi, Kadambot Siddique

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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Abstract

Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12–100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of transgenics and crop management strategies may enhance salt tolerance and yield in grain legumes on salt-affected soils.

LanguageEnglish
Pages199-217
Number of pages19
JournalPlant Physiology and Biochemistry
Volume118
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2017

Fingerprint

Fabaceae
salt stress
legumes
Salts
Salt-Tolerance
salt tolerance
ions
Ions
soil salts
hormonal regulation
Poisons
Photosynthesis
Seeds
photosynthesis
Soil
toxicity
seed priming
plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
Food
grain protein

Cite this

Farooq, Muhammad ; Gogoi, Nirmali ; Hussain, Mubshar ; Barthakur, Sharmistha ; Paul, Sreyashi ; Bharadwaj, Nandita ; Migdadi, Hussein M. ; Alghamdi, Salem S. ; Siddique, Kadambot. / Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2017 ; Vol. 118. pp. 199-217
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abstract = "Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50{\%}) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70{\%}), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12–100{\%}) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of transgenics and crop management strategies may enhance salt tolerance and yield in grain legumes on salt-affected soils.",
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author = "Muhammad Farooq and Nirmali Gogoi and Mubshar Hussain and Sharmistha Barthakur and Sreyashi Paul and Nandita Bharadwaj and Migdadi, {Hussein M.} and Alghamdi, {Salem S.} and Kadambot Siddique",
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Farooq, M, Gogoi, N, Hussain, M, Barthakur, S, Paul, S, Bharadwaj, N, Migdadi, HM, Alghamdi, SS & Siddique, K 2017, 'Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes' Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol 118, pp. 199-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.020

Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. / Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M.; Alghamdi, Salem S.; Siddique, Kadambot.

In: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Vol. 118, 01.09.2017, p. 199-217.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AU - Farooq,Muhammad

AU - Gogoi,Nirmali

AU - Hussain,Mubshar

AU - Barthakur,Sharmistha

AU - Paul,Sreyashi

AU - Bharadwaj,Nandita

AU - Migdadi,Hussein M.

AU - Alghamdi,Salem S.

AU - Siddique,Kadambot

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AB - Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12–100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of transgenics and crop management strategies may enhance salt tolerance and yield in grain legumes on salt-affected soils.

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KW - Grain legumes

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Farooq M, Gogoi N, Hussain M, Barthakur S, Paul S, Bharadwaj N et al. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2017 Sep 1;118:199-217. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.06.020