Effects of Temperature on Disease Severity in Plants of Subterranean Clover Infected Singly or in Mixed Infection with Bean yellow mosaic virus and Kabatiella caulivora

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Abstract

© 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbHMany epidemics involve plants infected with more than one pathogen, but few experiments address climate change scenarios that influence mixed infections. This study addresses the interactive effects of co-infection and temperature on disease development in plants of the annual pasture species subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), which is widely sown in different world regions. Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and the fungus Kabatiella caulivora are two important pathogens causing considerable production losses in pastures containing this species. Both occur together in such pastures causing a severe necrotic disease when mixed infection occurs. Effects of temperature on symptom expression were investigated in subterranean clover plants infected singly or in mixed infection with these pathogens. Plants were maintained in controlled environment rooms at 18°C, 20°C or 22.5°C after sap inoculation with BYMV. K. caulivora conidia suspensions were inoculated to plants once systemic BYMV symptoms developed. Plants were assessed for three disease assessment parameters, dead petioles numbers, marginal leaflet necrosis and overall plant damage. In general, mixed infection caused most severe symptoms, K. caulivora least severe symptoms, and BYMV symptoms of intermediate severity. In single infections, effects of temperature on disease severity differed between pathogens: BYMV symptoms were most pronounced at 18°C, but K. caulivora induced more severe symptoms at 20°C and 22.5°C. In mixed infections, disease severity generally followed the pattern developed with BYMV alone as temperature increased. Also, synergistic increase in disease severity sometimes occurred at 18°C, but increases were only additive at 20°C and 22.5°C. These results reflected the greater BYMV multiplication detected in infected leaves at 18°C compared with 20°C or 22.5°C. Our findings indicate that in rainfed subterranean clover pastures, as global warming progresses disease severity from infection with BYMV and K. ca
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)608-619
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Phytopathology
Volume164
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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