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Sympathetic overdrive contributes to the derangement of glucose metabolism evident in clinical conditions, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. Targeting the sympathetic nervous system directly therefore appears as an attractive therapeutic approach to restore impaired glucose metabolism. Indeed, lifestyle interventions, including healthier diets and exercise, have been shown to exert their beneficial effects at least in part by reducing sympathetic nervous system activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of exaggerated central sympathetic outflow has also been demonstrated to beneficially impact on body weight and glucose and lipid metabolism. More recently, catheter-based renal denervation, an intervention applied predominantly to lower elevated blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension, revealed salutary effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we review the mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effects of targeting the sympathetic nervous system directly and discuss how these approaches may best be embedded in routine clinical practice.