Effects of postnatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on offspring pro-resolving mediators of inflammation at 6 months and 5 years of age: A double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial

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Abstract

Background Resolution of inflammation is an active process involving specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) generated from the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during infancy may provide an intervention strategy to modify SPMs and reduce oxidative stress. This study evaluates the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in infancy on SPMs and F2-isoprostanes from 6 months to 5 years of age. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study design, 420 infants were randomized to a daily supplement of omega-3 fatty acids (280 mg DHA and 110 mg EPA) or olive oil (control), from birth to age 6 months. Blood was collected at birth (cord blood), 6 months, 12 months and 5 years. Plasma SPMs included 18-HEPE, E-series resolvins, 17-HDHA, D-series resolvins, 14-HDHA, 10 S,17S-DiHDoHE, MaR1 and PD1. F2-isoprostanes were measured in plasma and urine, as markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Results The change in the concentration of 18-HEPE from birth to 6 months was greater in the omega-3 fatty acid group (Ptimepoint*group=0.04) with levels at 6 months significantly higher than controls (P=0.02). Other SPMs were not different between the groups at any time point. Plasma 18-HEPE concentration were associated with erythrocyte EPA concentrations after age and group adjustments (P<0.001), but not with allergic outcomes at 12 months. There were no between-group differences in plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes at any time point. Conclusion Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation from birth to 6 months of age increased SPM at 6 months but the effects were not sustained after supplementation ceased. Given that 18-HEPE is a biologically active metabolite, future studies should examine how the increase in 18-HEPE relates to potential health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in infancy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-132
Number of pages7
JournalProstaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
Volume126
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

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