Purpose: To characterize the cellular responses of murine and human mesothelioma cell lines to different doses of photon radiation with a long-term aim of optimizing a clinically relevant in vivo model in which to study the interaction of radiation therapy and immunotherapy combinations. Methods and Materials: Two murine mesothelioma cell lines (AB1 and AE17) and 3 human cell lines (BYE, MC, and JU) were used in the study. Cells were treated with increasing doses of photon radiation. DNA damage, DNA repair, cell proliferation, and apoptosis at different time points after irradiation were quantified by flow cytometry, and cell survival probability was examined using clonogenic survival assay. Results: DNA damage increased with escalating dose in all cell lines. Evident G2/M arrest and reduced cell proliferation were observed after irradiation with 8 Gy. DNA repair was uniformly less efficient at higher compared with lower radiation-fraction doses. The apoptosis dose response varied between cell lines, with greater apoptosis observed at 16 Gy with human BYE and murine AB1 cell lines but less for other studied cell lines, regardless of dose and time. The alpha/beta ratio from the cell survival fraction of human mesothelioma cell lines was smaller than from murine ones, suggesting human cell lines in our study were more sensitive to a change of dose per fraction than were murine mesothelioma cell lines. However, in all studied cell lines, colony formation was completely inhibited at 8 Gy. Conclusions: A threshold dose of 8 Gy appeared to be appropriate for hypofractionated radiation therapy. However, the radiation therapy doses between 4 and 8 Gy remain to be systematically analyzed. These observations provide an accurate picture of the in vitro response of mesothelioma cell lines to photon irradiation and characterize the heterogeneity between human and murine cell lines. This information may guide in vivo experiments and the strengths and limitations of extrapolation from murine experimentation to potential human translation. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Society for Radiation Oncology.