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The permeability of fractured sorbing media, such as shale and coal, is mainly controlled by effectivestresses and sorption-induced strains. Although the influence of effective stresses on permeability hasbeen extensively studied, how sorption-induced strains affect permeability evolution has not been fullyunderstood. Sorption-induced strains can impact the permeability in opposite ways at different time scales.If the swelling occurs at matrix surfaces (local swelling), the swelling strain purely reduces fracture apertureand results in a permeability decline. However, when the whole rock is fully invaded by injected gas, theswelling of the whole rock (global swelling) increases fracture aperture and the bulk volume, enhancing thepermeability. Most existing models only use fracture (pore) pressure to describe rock swelling, assumingthat the rock is fully invaded and matrix-fracture pressure equilibrium is achieved. They cannot explain someexperimental data because rocks may never be fully invaded during permeability measurement. Moreover,different pore types are not considered and local swelling can be heterogeneous due to complex matrixcomponents. In this paper, the non-equilibrium effects are depicted by defining two continua (matrices and fractures)with distinct pressure values. The transition between local swelling and global swelling is quantified bythe pressure difference between the two systems. The larger the pressure difference is, the heavier localswelling effects will be. And global swelling is only a function of fracture pressure. Different pore typesare included in our permeability model. And the heterogeneous local swelling strain is characterized by asplitting strain function. This model is verified against laboratory data from common permeability measurement conditions. Underconstant effective stress and constant confining stress conditions, the permeability changes at differenttimes and becomes stable after a relatively long time. With the matrix-fracture pressure difference firstincreases to a maximum value and then decreases to zero, local swelling effects change from zero to a peakvalue and finally drop to zero. By combining permeability curves at different injection pressure levels, 3-D permeability surfaces are obtained. The impacts of rock properties, heterogeneous local swelling, andmultiple pore types on permeability evolution are analyzed. Adsorption and mechanical properties control specific regions of permeability curves. Effects of heterogeneous local swelling are determined by theadsorption capacity of the dominant matrix component. The existence of multiple pore types makes thepermeability curve deviate from those of single-pore-Type cases and affects a wider range of permeabilitycurves compared with heterogeneous local swelling.
|Title of host publication||Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Europec Featured at 82nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition|
|Publisher||Society of Petroleum Engineers|
|Number of pages||26|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
|Event||SPE Europec Featured at 82nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition - Amsterdam, Netherlands|
Duration: 8 Dec 2020 → 11 Dec 2020
|Name||Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Europec Featured at 82nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition|
|Conference||SPE Europec Featured at 82nd EAGE Conference and Exhibition|
|Period||8/12/20 → 11/12/20|
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Four Stage Permeability Evolution Theory for Low Permeable Rocks
Liu, J. & Elsworth, D.
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