Effects of Formulation on the Palatability and Efficacy of In-Feed Praziquantel Medications for Marine Finfish Aquaculture

Edith K.Y. Tang, Gavin J. Partridge, Lindsey D. Woolley, Luke Pilmer, Lee Yong Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Praziquantel (PZQ) provides an effective treatment against monogenean parasitic infestations in finfish. However, its use as an in-feed treatment is challenging due to palatability issues. In this study, five formulations of PZQ beads (1–4 mm) were developed using marine-based polymers, with allicin added as a flavouring agent. All formulations attained PZQ loading rates ≥74% w/w, and the beads were successfully incorporated into fish feed pellets at an active dietary inclusion level of 10 g/kg. When tested for palatability and digestibility in small yellowtail kingfish, the PZQ-loaded beads produced with alginate-chitosan, alginate-Cremophor® RH40, and agar as carriers resulted in high consumption rates of 99–100% with no digesta or evidence of beads in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish fed with diets containing either formulation. Two formulations produced using chitosan-based carriers resulted in lower consumption rates of 68–75%, with undigested and partly digested beads found in the fish GIT 3 h post feeding. The PZQ-loaded alginate-chitosan and agar beads also showed good palatability in large (≥2 kg) yellowtail kingfish infected with gill parasites and were efficacious in removing the parasites from the fish, achieving >90% reduction in mean abundance relative to control fish (p < 0.001). The two effective formulations were stable upon storage at ambient temperature for up to 18 months, showing residual drug content >90% compared with baseline levels. Overall, the palatability, efficacy and stability data collected from this study suggest that these two PZQ particulate formulations have potential applications as in-feed anti-parasitic medications for the yellowtail kingfish farming industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number323
JournalMarine Drugs
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of Formulation on the Palatability and Efficacy of In-Feed Praziquantel Medications for Marine Finfish Aquaculture'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this