Invasive plants rapidly spread in habitats with low soil phosphorus (P) availability and have triggered a sharp decline in the diversity of native species. However, no studies have explored how widespread invasive species acclimate to low soil P availability via changing foliar P fractions, especially under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) and nitrogen (N) deposition. Here, an open-top chamber experiment was conducted to explore the effect of nutrient addition and elevated [CO2] on leaf traits and foliar functional P fractions (i.e., Pi, metabolite P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P) of two aggressive invasive species (Mikania micranatha and Chromolaena odorata). We found that foliar N/P ratios were more than 20, and P addition significantly increased plant biomass. Both results indicated P-limited plant growth at our studied site. Elevated [CO2], N and N + P addition greatly increased plant biomass, photosynthetic rates, and photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) in invasive species, but PPUE decreased with increasing P addition. Nitrogen addition slightly decreased the concentration of leaf total P, decreased foliar residual P, but increased metabolite P concentrations in invasive species. Similar changes in foliar P fractions were found under N + P addition. Phosphorus addition increased foliar P concentrations, which was strongly correlated with an increase in metabolite P concentrations in invasive species. Elevated [CO2] alleviated these effects and increased PPUE. The present results suggest that future elevated [CO2] and N deposition allow the invasive species to acclimate to low soil P availability and support their successful invasion by greatly reducing P allocation to non-metabolite foliar P fractions (i.e., nucleic acid P and residual P) to meet their demand of metabolite P for photosynthesis and exhibit a high PPUE.