Effects of diurnal exercise timing on appetite, energy intake and body composition: A parallel randomized trial

Shaun Y.M. Teo, Jill A. Kanaley, Kym J. Guelfi, James A. Dimmock, Ben Jackson, Timothy J. Fairchild

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine the effect of diurnal exercise timing on appetite, energy intake and body composition in individuals with overweight or obesity. Methods: Forty sedentary, individuals with overweight or obesity (17 males, 23 females; age: 51 ± 13 years; BMI: 30.9 ± 4.2 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to complete a 12-week supervised multi-modal exercise training program performed either in the morning (amEX) or evening (pmEX). Outcome measures included appetite in response to a standardised test meal, daily energy intake (EI), body weight and body composition. Measures of dietary behaviour were assessed at baseline and post-intervention, along with habitual physical activity, sleep quality and sleep quantity. Significance was set at p ≤ .05 and Hedge's g effect sizes were calculated. Results: Regardless of timing, exercise training increased perceived fullness (AUC; g = 0.82–1.67; both p < .01), decreased daily EI (g = 0.73–0.93; both p < .01) and body-fat (g = 0.29–0.32; both p <. 01). The timing of exercise did not change the daily EI or body-fat response to training (all p ≥ .27), however, perceived fullness increased in the amEX group (p ≤ .01). Disinhibition: (g = 0.35–1.95; p ≤ .01) and Hunger (g = 0.05–0.4; p = .02) behaviours decreased following exercise training, with Disinhibition demonstrating greater improvements in the pmEX group (p = .01). Objective and subjective sleep quantity increased with training (all p ≤ .01), but sleep quality was not reported to change. Conclusions: Multi-modal exercise training improved body composition and some appetite outcomes, although changes were inconsistent and largely independent of exercise-timing. In the absence of dietary manipulation, the effect of diurnal exercise timing on appetite and body composition appear trivial compared to the overall benefits of exercise participation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105600
JournalAppetite
Volume167
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021

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