This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with leucine and phenylalanine on pancreas development, enzyme activity, and related gene expression in male Holstein calves. Twenty male Holstein calves [1 d of age, 38 ± 3 kg of body weight (BW)] were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 treatment groups with 5 calves in each group: control, leucine supplementation (1.435 g/L of milk), phenylalanine supplementation (0.725 g/L of milk), and leucine and phenylalanine (1.435 + 0.725 g/L of milk). The diets were made isonitrogenous with the inclusion of alanine in each respective treatment. The feeding trial lasted for 8 wk, including 1 wk for adaption and 7 wk for the feeding experiment. Leucine tended to increase the concentration of total pancreatic protein (mg/kg of BW). Phenylalanine increased the concentrations of plasma insulin, cholecystokinin, and pancreatic DNA (mg/g) and the expression of trypsin gene but decreased the pancreatic protein:DNA ratio and tended to decrease the pancreas weight (g/kg of BW). No differences were observed in total pancreatic DNA (mg/pancreas and mg/kg of BW), pancreatic protein (mg/pancreas), or activities of α-amylase, trypsin, and lipase. The relative expression levels of the genes encoding α-amylase and lipase did not differ among the 4 groups. The supplementation of both leucine and phenylalanine showed an interaction on the pancreas weight (g and g/kg of BW) and a tendency of an interaction on the pancreatic protein concentration (mg/g of pancreas and mg/kg of BW) and the plasma glucose concentration. Leucine tended to increase the size of the pancreatic cells, whereas phenylalanine tended to increase the number of pancreatic cells. However, neither AA affected the activities of the pancreatic enzymes of the calves. These results indicate that leucine and phenylalanine supplementation in milk-fed Holstein calves differentially affect pancreatic growth and development.