Summary: One year of calcium supplementation in older women led to modest reductions in total osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), with no changes in muscle or fat mass, or glycated haemoglobin. Future studies should explore whether treatments with more profound effects of suppressing ucOC may lead to impaired glycaemic control. Introduction: Total osteocalcin (TOC) is a marker of bone turnover, while its undercarboxylated form has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in mice. This post hoc analysis of a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether 1 year of calcium supplementation affected circulating TOC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in 1368 older community-dwelling women (mean age 75.2 ± 2.7 years). Methods: Women enrolled in the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study trial (1998–2003) were supplemented with 1.2 g/d of elemental calcium (in the form of calcium carbonate) or placebo. Circulating TOC, ucOC and HbA1c was measured at 1 year (1999). Results: After 1 year of calcium supplementation, TOC and ucOC levels were 17% and 22% lower compared with placebo (mean 22.7 ± 9.1 vs. 27.3 ± 10.9 μg/L and 11.1 ± 4.9 vs. 13.0 ± 5.7 μg/L, both P < 0.001). Carboxylated osteocalcin/ucOC was 6% lower after calcium supplementation (P < 0.05). Despite this, no differences in HbA1c were observed (calcium, 5.2 ± 0.6 vs. placebo, 5.3 ± 0.8%; P = 0.08). Calcium supplementation did not affect BMI, whole body lean or fat mass. In exploratory analyses, total calcium (dietary and supplemental) was inversely related to TOC and ucOC, indicating calcium intake is an important dietary determinant of osteocalcin levels. Conclusion: One year of calcium supplementation in older women led to modest reductions in TOC and ucOC, with no changes in muscle or fat mass, or HbA1c. Future studies should explore whether treatments with more profound effects of suppressing ucOC may lead to impaired glycaemic control.