Mechanical ventilation causes lung injury and systemic inflammatory responses in preterm sheep and is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Budesonide added to surfactant decreased BPD by 20% in infants. We wanted to determine the effects of budesonide and surfactant on injury from high tidal volume (VT) ventilation in preterm lambs. Ewes at 125 ± 1 days gestational age had fetal surgery to expose fetal head and chest with placental circulation intact. Lambs were randomized to 1) mechanical ventilation with escalating VT to target 15 ml/kg by 15 min or 2) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 cmH2O. After the 15-min intervention, lambs were given surfactant 100 mg/kg with saline, budesonide 0.25 mg/kg, or budesonide 1 mg/kg. The fetuses were returned to the uterus for 24 h and then delivered and ventilated for 30 min to assess lung function. Budesonide levels were low in lung and plasma. CPAP groups had improved oxygenation, ventilation, and decreased injury markers compared with fetal VT lambs. Budesonide improved ventilation in CPAP lambs. Budesonide decreased lung weights and lung liquid and increased lung compliance and surfactant protein mRNA. Budesonide decreased proinflammatory and acute-phase responses in lung. Airway thickness increased in animals not receiving budesonide. Systemically, budesonide decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and preserved glycogen in liver. Results with 0.25 and 1 mg/kg budesonide were similar. We concluded that budesonide with surfactant matured the preterm lung and decreased the liver responses but did not improve lung function after high VT injury in fetal sheep.
|American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
|Published - 1 Aug 2018