Objective To assess effects of multifactorial lifestyle modification on antihypertensive drug needs in treated hypertensive individuals.Design Randomized controlled trial.Setting Research studies unit.Participants Overweight hypertensive patients, receiving one or two antihypertensive drugs, were recruited by advertising, and allocated randomly to a usual care group (controls; n = 118) or a lifestyle modification group (programme group; n = 123).Intervention A 4-month programme of weight loss, a low-sodium 'Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension'-type diet with added fish, physical activity and moderation of alcohol intake. After 4 months, if mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was less than 135/85 mmHg, antihypertensive drugs were withdrawn over 4 weeks and long-term home blood pressure monitoring was begun.Main outcome measures Antihypertensive drug requirements, ABP, weight, waist girth at 4 months and 1-year follow-up.Results Ninety control group and 102 programme group participants completed the study. Mean 24-h ABP changed after 4 months by -1.0/-0.3 +/- 0.5/0.4 mmHg in controls and -4.1/-2.1 +/- 0.7/0.5 mmHg with the lifestyle programme (P < 0.01). At follow-up, changes in the two groups were not significantly different (4.1/1.3 +/- 1.1/1.0 mmHg in controls; 2.5/-0.1 +/- 1.1/0.8 mmHg in the programme group; P = 0.73). At 4 months, drug withdrawal differed significantly between the groups (P = 0.038) in men (control 44%; programme 66%) but not in women (65 and 64%, respectively; P = 0.964). At follow-up, sex-related differences were not significant, and 41% in the control group and 43% in the programme group maintained drug-withdrawal status. With the programme, net weight loss was 3.3 kg (P < 0.001) at 4 months and 3.0 kg (P < 0.001) at follow-up; respective net decreases in waist girth were 3.3 cm (P < 0.001) and 3.5 cm (P < 0.001).Conclusions A 4-month multifactorial lifestyle modification in patients with treated hypertension reduced blood pressure in the short-term. Decreased central obesity persisted 1 year later and could reduce overall cardiovascular risk. (c) 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
|Journal||Journal of Hypertension|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|