Effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against hypoxic pneumonia and hospitalisation in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea: An observational cohort study

Christopher C. Blyth, Kathryn J. Britton, Cattram D. Nguyen, Joycelyn Sapura, John Kave, Birunu Nivio, Jocelyn Chan, Catherine Satzke, Rebecca Ford, Wendy Kirarock, Deborah Lehmann, William Pomat, Fiona M. Russell

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Abstract

Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality with Streptococcus pneumoniae a major contributor. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced into immunisation programs in many low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) yet there is a paucity of data evaluating the effectiveness in these settings. We assess the effectiveness of 13-valent PCV (13vPCV) against hypoxic pneumonia, hospitalisation and other clinical endpoints in children <5 years living in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods: Data from two consecutive prospective observational studies (2013–2019) enrolling children <60 months presenting with pneumonia were included. Hypoxic pneumonia was defined as oxygen saturations <90%. Outcomes included hospitalisation, severe clinical pneumonia and death. 13vPCV status was determined using written records. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios of key outcomes by 13vPCV vaccination status adjusted for confounders using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Findings: Data from 2067 children (median age; 9 months [IQR: 5–11]) were included. 739 children (36.1%) were hypoxic and 623 (30.4%) hospitalised. Twelve children (0.6% of total cohort) died in hospital. 670 children (32.7%) were fully 13vPCV-vaccinated. 13vPCV vaccination was associated with a 28.7% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.9; 43.6%) in hypoxic pneumonia and a 57.4% reduction (38.0; 70.7%) in pneumonia hospitalisation. Interpretation: 13vPCV vaccination is effective against hypoxic pneumonia and pneumonia hospitalisation in PNG children. Strategies to improve access to and coverage of 13vPCV in PNG and other similar LMICs are urgently required. Funding: Funded by Pfizer Global and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100432
JournalThe Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
Volume22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

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