Effect of waterpipe smoking on peri-implant health: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Zohaib Akram, Fawad Javed, Fahim Vohra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the present review was to evaluate the effect of waterpipe smoking (WS) on clinical peri-implant inflammatory parameters compared to non-smokers (NS) with dental implants. Literature searches were performed using bibliographic databases up to May 2018. Primary outcomes included peri-implant bone loss (PIBL), while secondary outcomes were probing depth (PD), plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each PIBL and PD were estimated by a random-effect model. Four retrospective case-control studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. All of the included studies showed statistically-significantly worse peri-implant outcomes in WS compared to NS. Considering the effects of WS on peri-implant parameters, significant heterogeneity for PIBL (Q-value = 34.21, P < 0.0001, I2  = 94.16%) and PD (Q-value = 51.97, P < 0.0001, I2  = 96.15%) was observed between both groups. The overall RR for PIBL (RR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.01-3.97, P = 0.001) and PD (RR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.91-7.17, P = 0.001) were significant between WS and NS groups. WS has detrimental effect on peri-implant health. Clinicians should instruct and advise patients about poor prognosis and peri-implant diseases caused by WS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12403
Pages (from-to)e12403
JournalJournal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


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