The aim of the present review was to evaluate the effect of waterpipe smoking (WS) on clinical peri-implant inflammatory parameters compared to non-smokers (NS) with dental implants. Literature searches were performed using bibliographic databases up to May 2018. Primary outcomes included peri-implant bone loss (PIBL), while secondary outcomes were probing depth (PD), plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each PIBL and PD were estimated by a random-effect model. Four retrospective case-control studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. All of the included studies showed statistically-significantly worse peri-implant outcomes in WS compared to NS. Considering the effects of WS on peri-implant parameters, significant heterogeneity for PIBL (Q-value = 34.21, P < 0.0001, I2 = 94.16%) and PD (Q-value = 51.97, P < 0.0001, I2 = 96.15%) was observed between both groups. The overall RR for PIBL (RR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.01-3.97, P = 0.001) and PD (RR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.91-7.17, P = 0.001) were significant between WS and NS groups. WS has detrimental effect on peri-implant health. Clinicians should instruct and advise patients about poor prognosis and peri-implant diseases caused by WS.
|Journal||Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Aug 2019|