Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm in the Root Canal

Abhishek Parolia, Haresh Kumar, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Fabian Davamani, Malikarjuna Rao Pichika, Kit-Kay Mak, Amr S Fawzy, Umer Daood, Allan Pau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and β-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number715
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2021

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm in the Root Canal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this