An elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration and frequent droughts are two anticipated climate change scenarios in which certain invasive weeds may develop competitive advantages over crops and adversely impact productivity and herbicide efficacy. Hence, a study was conducted to explore the effect of different climatic scenarios on the growth and management of Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers with glyphosate. The variables investigated were two CO2 concentrations (400 and 700 ppm), two soil moisture levels (100% and 50% of field capacity (FC)), and three glyphosate rates (0 (control), 517 (50% of recommended rate), and 1034 g ae ha−1 (recommended rate)). CO2 concentrations and soil moisture levels had different effects on the growth and management of S. cannabina. Overall, 100% FC and elevated [CO2 ] of 700 ppm recorded the maximum plant height (38 cm), leaves per plant (20), growth index (60), chlorophyll content (SPAD value 37), and dry biomass (3 g) in comparison with ambient [CO2 ] of 400 ppm and 50% FC treatment. The recommended glyphosate application gave 100% weed biomass reduction; however, efficacy was reduced (63%) when applied at 50% of the recommended rate under elevated [CO2 ] of 700 ppm and 50% FC conditions.