Effect of craniofacial morphology on gingival parameters of mandibular incisors

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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), gingival phenotype (GP), and gingival thickness (GT) with craniofacial morphology in sagittal and vertical dimensions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: WKG, GP, and GT of mandibular anterior teeth in 177 preorthodontic patients (mean age 18.38 ± 5.16 years) were assessed clinically using a periodontal probe, a Colorvue Biotype Probe, and ultrasound by a single examiner. Patients were grouped into skeletal Class I, II, and III and hyperdivergent, normodivergent, and hypodivergent based on ANB and SN-MP angles. Mandibular incisor inclination (L1-NB) was also measured. Clinical and cephalometric measurements were repeated to assess inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility.

RESULTS: A significant association was found between thin GP and skeletal Classes I and III for the left mandibular central incisor (MCI; P = .0183). In skeletal Class III patients, L1-NB angle demonstrated a decreasing trend as phenotype thickness decreased. A significant association was found between thin phenotype and normodivergent and hypodivergent groups for MCIs (left: P = .0009, right: P = .00253). No significant association between WKG or GT and craniofacial morphology was found.

CONCLUSIONS: Thin GP is associated with skeletal Class I and III for the left MCI. Thin GP is associated with hypodivergent and normodivergent skeletal patterns for the MCIs. There was no association between WKG and GT and craniofacial morphology in both skeletal and vertical dimensions. Dental compensations that exist due to different craniofacial morphology may influence the GP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-551
Number of pages7
JournalThe Angle orthodontist
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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