Effect of Cannabis Legalization on US Autism Incidence and Medium Term Projections

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Abstract

Objective: In that cannabis use has been linked with the development of autism spectrum disorder like conditions in gestationally exposed children, we set out to explore the extent to which rising cannabis use might contribute to the rising autism epidemic. Methods: Datasets from US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), National Survey of Drug Use and Health, and CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network were investigated. Data on legal status was derived from SAMHSA. Results: IDEA had N=1,023 and ADDM N=87. Modelling of IDEA consistently showed that models quadratic-in-time out-performed linear-only models (ANOVA p<2.0x10-16). In both datasets liberalization of cannabis legislation was associated with increased ASD (p<10-9 and p<0.05 respectively). Slopes of: ASD vs. time, Cannabis vs. time and ASD vs. cannabis curves were shown to be related on graphical analysis by geofacet plots and tanglegrams (entanglement=0.3326). CDC’s ADDM network quoted US autism incidence 168/10,000 in 2014. IDEA projections indicated rates 108.57, 131.67 and 166.49 in cannabis-illegal, -medical and -decriminalized states rising exponentially to 282.37, 396.91 and 455.54 by 2030. Conclusion: ASD is the commonest form of cannabis-associated clinical teratology. Using two independent datasets and two categorization methods we confirmed that medical, decriminalized and legal cannabis regimes are associated with higher rates of ASD than illegal ones. Findings are consistent with molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms. Formerly quadratic regression curves become exponential when projected forwards to 2030; predict a lower quantum than the 2014 ADDM CDC figure; and indicate a 60% excess of cases in legal states by 2030. Abbreviations: ADDM: Autism and Developmental Difficulties Monitoring from CDC; ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder; CB1R: Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor; CDC: Centers for Disease Control; IDEA: US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act; NSDUH: National Survey of Drug Use and Health; Robo: Roundabout,a guidance molecule receptor for axonal growth cones and arterial endothelial tips; SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Slit: Slits 1-3, arterial and axonal guidance molecule and ligand for Robo; + : An additive operator for regression calculations; ~: Tilde, a middle sign separating the two sides of a regression calculation; *: Asterisk, an operator used in regression calculations to include additive and interactive relationships.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalClinical Pediatrics: Open Access
Volume4
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2019

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Cannabis
Autistic Disorder
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Developmental Disabilities
Incidence
United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Health Services Misuse
Health Services Administration
Medical Marijuana
Teratology
Education
Growth Cones
Cannabinoids
Health
Mental Health Services
Jurisprudence
Legislation
Epigenomics
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Substance-Related Disorders

Cite this

@article{b59da6f440824258b8f472a6ac681078,
title = "Effect of Cannabis Legalization on US Autism Incidence and Medium Term Projections",
abstract = "Objective: In that cannabis use has been linked with the development of autism spectrum disorder like conditions in gestationally exposed children, we set out to explore the extent to which rising cannabis use might contribute to the rising autism epidemic. Methods: Datasets from US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), National Survey of Drug Use and Health, and CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network were investigated. Data on legal status was derived from SAMHSA. Results: IDEA had N=1,023 and ADDM N=87. Modelling of IDEA consistently showed that models quadratic-in-time out-performed linear-only models (ANOVA p<2.0x10-16). In both datasets liberalization of cannabis legislation was associated with increased ASD (p<10-9 and p<0.05 respectively). Slopes of: ASD vs. time, Cannabis vs. time and ASD vs. cannabis curves were shown to be related on graphical analysis by geofacet plots and tanglegrams (entanglement=0.3326). CDC’s ADDM network quoted US autism incidence 168/10,000 in 2014. IDEA projections indicated rates 108.57, 131.67 and 166.49 in cannabis-illegal, -medical and -decriminalized states rising exponentially to 282.37, 396.91 and 455.54 by 2030. Conclusion: ASD is the commonest form of cannabis-associated clinical teratology. Using two independent datasets and two categorization methods we confirmed that medical, decriminalized and legal cannabis regimes are associated with higher rates of ASD than illegal ones. Findings are consistent with molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms. Formerly quadratic regression curves become exponential when projected forwards to 2030; predict a lower quantum than the 2014 ADDM CDC figure; and indicate a 60{\%} excess of cases in legal states by 2030. Abbreviations: ADDM: Autism and Developmental Difficulties Monitoring from CDC; ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder; CB1R: Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor; CDC: Centers for Disease Control; IDEA: US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act; NSDUH: National Survey of Drug Use and Health; Robo: Roundabout,a guidance molecule receptor for axonal growth cones and arterial endothelial tips; SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Slit: Slits 1-3, arterial and axonal guidance molecule and ligand for Robo; + : An additive operator for regression calculations; ~: Tilde, a middle sign separating the two sides of a regression calculation; *: Asterisk, an operator used in regression calculations to include additive and interactive relationships.",
keywords = "Cannabis; Cannabinoids; Cannabidiol; Cannabinol; Cannabichromene; Tetrahydrocannabinol",
author = "Stuart Reece and Gary Hulse",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
journal = "Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access",
issn = "2572-0775",
publisher = "Longdom Publishing",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Cannabis Legalization on US Autism Incidence and Medium Term Projections

AU - Reece, Stuart

AU - Hulse, Gary

PY - 2019/5/3

Y1 - 2019/5/3

N2 - Objective: In that cannabis use has been linked with the development of autism spectrum disorder like conditions in gestationally exposed children, we set out to explore the extent to which rising cannabis use might contribute to the rising autism epidemic. Methods: Datasets from US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), National Survey of Drug Use and Health, and CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network were investigated. Data on legal status was derived from SAMHSA. Results: IDEA had N=1,023 and ADDM N=87. Modelling of IDEA consistently showed that models quadratic-in-time out-performed linear-only models (ANOVA p<2.0x10-16). In both datasets liberalization of cannabis legislation was associated with increased ASD (p<10-9 and p<0.05 respectively). Slopes of: ASD vs. time, Cannabis vs. time and ASD vs. cannabis curves were shown to be related on graphical analysis by geofacet plots and tanglegrams (entanglement=0.3326). CDC’s ADDM network quoted US autism incidence 168/10,000 in 2014. IDEA projections indicated rates 108.57, 131.67 and 166.49 in cannabis-illegal, -medical and -decriminalized states rising exponentially to 282.37, 396.91 and 455.54 by 2030. Conclusion: ASD is the commonest form of cannabis-associated clinical teratology. Using two independent datasets and two categorization methods we confirmed that medical, decriminalized and legal cannabis regimes are associated with higher rates of ASD than illegal ones. Findings are consistent with molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms. Formerly quadratic regression curves become exponential when projected forwards to 2030; predict a lower quantum than the 2014 ADDM CDC figure; and indicate a 60% excess of cases in legal states by 2030. Abbreviations: ADDM: Autism and Developmental Difficulties Monitoring from CDC; ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder; CB1R: Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor; CDC: Centers for Disease Control; IDEA: US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act; NSDUH: National Survey of Drug Use and Health; Robo: Roundabout,a guidance molecule receptor for axonal growth cones and arterial endothelial tips; SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Slit: Slits 1-3, arterial and axonal guidance molecule and ligand for Robo; + : An additive operator for regression calculations; ~: Tilde, a middle sign separating the two sides of a regression calculation; *: Asterisk, an operator used in regression calculations to include additive and interactive relationships.

AB - Objective: In that cannabis use has been linked with the development of autism spectrum disorder like conditions in gestationally exposed children, we set out to explore the extent to which rising cannabis use might contribute to the rising autism epidemic. Methods: Datasets from US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), National Survey of Drug Use and Health, and CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network were investigated. Data on legal status was derived from SAMHSA. Results: IDEA had N=1,023 and ADDM N=87. Modelling of IDEA consistently showed that models quadratic-in-time out-performed linear-only models (ANOVA p<2.0x10-16). In both datasets liberalization of cannabis legislation was associated with increased ASD (p<10-9 and p<0.05 respectively). Slopes of: ASD vs. time, Cannabis vs. time and ASD vs. cannabis curves were shown to be related on graphical analysis by geofacet plots and tanglegrams (entanglement=0.3326). CDC’s ADDM network quoted US autism incidence 168/10,000 in 2014. IDEA projections indicated rates 108.57, 131.67 and 166.49 in cannabis-illegal, -medical and -decriminalized states rising exponentially to 282.37, 396.91 and 455.54 by 2030. Conclusion: ASD is the commonest form of cannabis-associated clinical teratology. Using two independent datasets and two categorization methods we confirmed that medical, decriminalized and legal cannabis regimes are associated with higher rates of ASD than illegal ones. Findings are consistent with molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms. Formerly quadratic regression curves become exponential when projected forwards to 2030; predict a lower quantum than the 2014 ADDM CDC figure; and indicate a 60% excess of cases in legal states by 2030. Abbreviations: ADDM: Autism and Developmental Difficulties Monitoring from CDC; ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder; CB1R: Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor; CDC: Centers for Disease Control; IDEA: US Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Act; NSDUH: National Survey of Drug Use and Health; Robo: Roundabout,a guidance molecule receptor for axonal growth cones and arterial endothelial tips; SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Slit: Slits 1-3, arterial and axonal guidance molecule and ligand for Robo; + : An additive operator for regression calculations; ~: Tilde, a middle sign separating the two sides of a regression calculation; *: Asterisk, an operator used in regression calculations to include additive and interactive relationships.

KW - Cannabis; Cannabinoids; Cannabidiol; Cannabinol; Cannabichromene; Tetrahydrocannabinol

M3 - Article

VL - 4

JO - Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access

JF - Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access

SN - 2572-0775

IS - 2

ER -