BACKGROUND: Early-onset peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with heightened risks of technique failure and death. The risk factors for early peritonitis and its outcomes are unknown.
METHODS: This registry study examined all incident Australian PD patients between 2003 and 2014. The primary outcome was early peritonitis, defined as onset within 12 months of starting therapy. Secondary outcomes were medical cure, relapse/recurrence, catheter removal, peritonitis-associated technique failure, and peritonitis-associated death.
RESULTS: Of 9,845 patients, 2,615 experienced 3,827 early-peritonitis episodes (0.50 episodes per patient-year). Early peritonitis was more common in patients who were male, obese, had a history of cigarette smoking or cerebrovascular disease, used continuous ambulatory PD, and had received prior renal replacement therapy for > 90 days. Remoteness was a risk modifier for the association between race and early peritonitis; remote Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, Maori and Pacific Islander patients had the highest risk. Obese patients were more likely to achieve medical cure. Older patients were less likely to achieve cure and more likely to experience peritonitis-associated death.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, several factors predicted early peritonitis in incident PD patients. Modified approaches to patient selection, training techniques, and prevention strategies should be considered in high-risk individuals.