Early ontogeny of coal grunter from hormone induced spawnings and laboratory reared embryos and larvae.

Paul Close, Chris G Barlow, Les J Rodgers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Spawning of coal grunter Hephaestus carbo was successfully induced using doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) between 500 and 3000 IU kg (body weight)-1. Water hardened eggs are telolecithal, amber in colour, spherical, transparent, demersal and slightly adhesive with a single large oil droplet and perivitelline space 47% of total egg volume. Cleavage begins 10-15 min after fertilization. Epiboly begins 6 h after fertilization and continues for 4 h. Invagination of the neural tube is apparent 11·5 h after fertilization, followed by progressive organogenesis up to hatching 60-80 h after fertilization. An invagination in the yolk, consistent in shape, position and time of appearance among embryos spawned from numerous brood stock pairs, was visible in all fertilized eggs between neurulation (11·5 h) and early organogenesis (20 h). The functional significance of this yolk invagination is unknown. Newly-hatched larvae (4·2 mm LT) are elongate and possess well developed eyes, a functional mouth, and a large yolk sac. Yolk is fully resorbed and first feeding occurs at 6 days posthatching. The sequence of fin formation is caudal, second dorsal and anal, first dorsal, pectoral and pelvic. The preflexion larval stage lasts for c. 8 days and flexion of the notochord is complete within a further 8-9 days. Squamation commences at 30 days posthatching and transition to the juvenile life stage is complete by 35-40 days posthatching. © 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)928-942
JournalJournal of Fish Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001


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