Early maturation of force production in pig tracheal smooth muscle during fetal development

R.J. Booth, Malcolm Sparrow, Howard Mitchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The contractility of airway smooth muscle is fully established at late term and at birth but its responsiveness during fetal life has not been defined. In this study, the contractile force of airway smooth muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), K+ depolarizing solution, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was measured in tracheas from small fetal pigs. Contraction to either agonist and to EFS was detectable in fetuses of as low as 9 g body weight, which corresponds to approximately 36 days of gestation. Isometric force increased progressively with age, reaching 4.1 +/- 0.4 mN for K+ and 5.8 +/- 0.5 mN for ACh (10(-4) M) at 600 g fetal weight (90 days). However, when normalized for cross sectional area of smooth muscle, the stress was essentially the same from 17- to 600-g fetuses. (K+: 17 g = 74.4 +/- 10.6 mN/mm2, 600 g = 89.3 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2; ACh [10(-4) M]: 17 g = 76.3 +/- 16.0 mN/mm2, 600 g = 127.0 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2). The sensitivities of die various groups to ACh were not significantly different (e.g., EC.: 30 g = 4.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(-6) M, 600 g = 3.7 +/- 1.1 X 10(-6) M). EFS produced frequency-dependent contractile responses in all groups. With increasing fetal size, there was a corresponding increase in force. When this force was normalized to a maximum ACh response (10(-4) M), there was no significant difference between groups of fetuses. Histologic examination showed the major tissue components of the trachea were present in fetuses above 7 g. Immunocytochemistry detected myosin, caldesmon, and filamin in the smooth muscle from fetuses of 7 g and above, showing that contractile and actin-binding proteins were present from a very early age. It is concluded that smooth muscle contractile function is well developed very early in fetal life in pigs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)590-597
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1992

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Fetal Development
Acetylcholine
Smooth Muscle
Muscle
Fetus
Swine
Electric Stimulation
Trachea
Filamins
Term Birth
Calmodulin-Binding Proteins
Microfilament Proteins
Fetal Weight
Myosins
Immunohistochemistry
Body Weight
Tissue
Pregnancy

Cite this

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title = "Early maturation of force production in pig tracheal smooth muscle during fetal development",
abstract = "The contractility of airway smooth muscle is fully established at late term and at birth but its responsiveness during fetal life has not been defined. In this study, the contractile force of airway smooth muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), K+ depolarizing solution, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was measured in tracheas from small fetal pigs. Contraction to either agonist and to EFS was detectable in fetuses of as low as 9 g body weight, which corresponds to approximately 36 days of gestation. Isometric force increased progressively with age, reaching 4.1 +/- 0.4 mN for K+ and 5.8 +/- 0.5 mN for ACh (10(-4) M) at 600 g fetal weight (90 days). However, when normalized for cross sectional area of smooth muscle, the stress was essentially the same from 17- to 600-g fetuses. (K+: 17 g = 74.4 +/- 10.6 mN/mm2, 600 g = 89.3 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2; ACh [10(-4) M]: 17 g = 76.3 +/- 16.0 mN/mm2, 600 g = 127.0 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2). The sensitivities of die various groups to ACh were not significantly different (e.g., EC.: 30 g = 4.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(-6) M, 600 g = 3.7 +/- 1.1 X 10(-6) M). EFS produced frequency-dependent contractile responses in all groups. With increasing fetal size, there was a corresponding increase in force. When this force was normalized to a maximum ACh response (10(-4) M), there was no significant difference between groups of fetuses. Histologic examination showed the major tissue components of the trachea were present in fetuses above 7 g. Immunocytochemistry detected myosin, caldesmon, and filamin in the smooth muscle from fetuses of 7 g and above, showing that contractile and actin-binding proteins were present from a very early age. It is concluded that smooth muscle contractile function is well developed very early in fetal life in pigs.",
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Early maturation of force production in pig tracheal smooth muscle during fetal development. / Booth, R.J.; Sparrow, Malcolm; Mitchell, Howard.

In: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol. 7, 1992, p. 590-597.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Early maturation of force production in pig tracheal smooth muscle during fetal development

AU - Booth, R.J.

AU - Sparrow, Malcolm

AU - Mitchell, Howard

PY - 1992

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N2 - The contractility of airway smooth muscle is fully established at late term and at birth but its responsiveness during fetal life has not been defined. In this study, the contractile force of airway smooth muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), K+ depolarizing solution, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was measured in tracheas from small fetal pigs. Contraction to either agonist and to EFS was detectable in fetuses of as low as 9 g body weight, which corresponds to approximately 36 days of gestation. Isometric force increased progressively with age, reaching 4.1 +/- 0.4 mN for K+ and 5.8 +/- 0.5 mN for ACh (10(-4) M) at 600 g fetal weight (90 days). However, when normalized for cross sectional area of smooth muscle, the stress was essentially the same from 17- to 600-g fetuses. (K+: 17 g = 74.4 +/- 10.6 mN/mm2, 600 g = 89.3 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2; ACh [10(-4) M]: 17 g = 76.3 +/- 16.0 mN/mm2, 600 g = 127.0 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2). The sensitivities of die various groups to ACh were not significantly different (e.g., EC.: 30 g = 4.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(-6) M, 600 g = 3.7 +/- 1.1 X 10(-6) M). EFS produced frequency-dependent contractile responses in all groups. With increasing fetal size, there was a corresponding increase in force. When this force was normalized to a maximum ACh response (10(-4) M), there was no significant difference between groups of fetuses. Histologic examination showed the major tissue components of the trachea were present in fetuses above 7 g. Immunocytochemistry detected myosin, caldesmon, and filamin in the smooth muscle from fetuses of 7 g and above, showing that contractile and actin-binding proteins were present from a very early age. It is concluded that smooth muscle contractile function is well developed very early in fetal life in pigs.

AB - The contractility of airway smooth muscle is fully established at late term and at birth but its responsiveness during fetal life has not been defined. In this study, the contractile force of airway smooth muscle to acetylcholine (ACh), K+ depolarizing solution, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was measured in tracheas from small fetal pigs. Contraction to either agonist and to EFS was detectable in fetuses of as low as 9 g body weight, which corresponds to approximately 36 days of gestation. Isometric force increased progressively with age, reaching 4.1 +/- 0.4 mN for K+ and 5.8 +/- 0.5 mN for ACh (10(-4) M) at 600 g fetal weight (90 days). However, when normalized for cross sectional area of smooth muscle, the stress was essentially the same from 17- to 600-g fetuses. (K+: 17 g = 74.4 +/- 10.6 mN/mm2, 600 g = 89.3 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2; ACh [10(-4) M]: 17 g = 76.3 +/- 16.0 mN/mm2, 600 g = 127.0 +/- 13.0 mN/mm2). The sensitivities of die various groups to ACh were not significantly different (e.g., EC.: 30 g = 4.0 +/- 0.2 x 10(-6) M, 600 g = 3.7 +/- 1.1 X 10(-6) M). EFS produced frequency-dependent contractile responses in all groups. With increasing fetal size, there was a corresponding increase in force. When this force was normalized to a maximum ACh response (10(-4) M), there was no significant difference between groups of fetuses. Histologic examination showed the major tissue components of the trachea were present in fetuses above 7 g. Immunocytochemistry detected myosin, caldesmon, and filamin in the smooth muscle from fetuses of 7 g and above, showing that contractile and actin-binding proteins were present from a very early age. It is concluded that smooth muscle contractile function is well developed very early in fetal life in pigs.

U2 - 10.1165/ajrcmb/7.6.590

DO - 10.1165/ajrcmb/7.6.590

M3 - Article

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JO - American Journal of Repiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

JF - American Journal of Repiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

SN - 1044-1549

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