Early life predictors of obstructive sleep apnoea in young adults: Insights from a longitudinal community cohort (Raine study)

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Abstract

Objective: Early-life obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) predictors are unavailable for young adults. This study identifies early-life factors predisposing young adults to OSA. Methods: This retrospective study included 923 young adults and their mothers from the Western Australian Pregnancy Raine Study Cohort. OSA at 22 years was determined from in-laboratory polysomnography. Logistic regression was used to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with OSA in young adulthood. Results: OSA was observed in 20.8% (192) participants. Maternal predictors of OSA included gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) 9.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 58.5, P = 0.011), preterm delivery (OR 3.18, 95%CI 1.1,10.5, P = 0.043), preeclampsia (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.1,8.0, P = 0.034), premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.46, 95%CI 1.2, 5.2, P = 0.015), age ≥35 years (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.2,4.4, P = 0.011), overweight and obesity (pregnancy BMI≥25 kg/m2) (OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.2,3.2, P = 0.004), pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.1,3.2, P = 0.019), and Chinese ethnicity (OR 2.36,95%CI 1.01,5.5, P = 0.047). Neonatal predictors included male child (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.5,3.0, P < 0.0001), presence of meconium-stained liquor during delivery (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.0,2.5, P = 0.044) and admission to special care nursery (OR 1.51 95%CI 1.0,2.2, P = 0.040). Higher birth lengths reduced OSA odds by 7% for each centimetre (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.87, 0.99, P = 0.033). Conclusions: A range of maternal and neonatal factors predict OSA in young adults, including those related to poor maternal metabolic health, high-risk pregnancy and stressful perinatal events. This information could assist in the early identification and management of at-risk individuals and indicates that better maternal health may reduce the likelihood of young adults developing OSA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-81
Number of pages6
JournalSleep Medicine
Volume110
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

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