This paper examines the links between childhood conduct disorder problems' and schooling and labour market outcomes net of genetic and environmental effects. The results show that individuals who experienced conduct disorder problems are more likely to leave school early, have poorer employment. prospects and lower earnings. These findings are shown to be due to the genetic and environmental influences that are generally not considered in studies of schooling and labour market outcomes. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.