Casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene-b (Cbl-b), a RING finger E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in establishing the threshold for T-cell activation and controlling peripheral T-cell tolerance via multiple mechanisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that Cbl-b also regulates innate immune responses and plays an important role in host defense to pathogens. Understanding the signaling pathways regulated by Cbl-b in innate and adaptive immune cells is therefore essential for efficient manipulation of Cbl-b in emerging immunotherapies for human disorders such as autoimmune diseases, allergic inflammation, infections, and cancer. In this article, we review the latest developments in the molecular structural basis of Cbl-b function, the regulation of Cbl-b expression, the signaling mechanisms of Cbl-b in immune cells, as well as the biological function of Cbl-b in physiological and pathological immune responses in animal models and human diseases. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.