Dynamic installation and monotonic pullout of a torpedo anchor in calcareous silt

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    Abstract

    Challenges associated with dynamically installed anchors include prediction of the anchor embedment depth, which dictates the anchor’s holding capacity. This is particularly true for calcareous sediments, as very little performance data exist for this anchor type in these soils. This paper reports results from a series of model tests undertaken to provide insight into the behaviour of a torpedo anchor during dynamic installation and monotonic pullout in lightly overconsolidated calcareous silt. The tests were carried out in a beam centrifuge, varying the drop height and consequently the impact velocity, and the consolidation period prior to anchor pullout. The mudline load inclination was also varied to encompass various mooring configurations. The centrifuge model test data were used to calibrate: (a) an analytical dynamic embedment model, based on conventional bearing and frictional resistance factors but with strain-rate-dependent undrained shear strength for the soil; and (b) an analytical quasi-static vertical pullout capacity model, accounting for reverse end bearing and frictional resistance. A total energy based expression, appropriate for calcareous silts, was proposed for predicting anchor embedment depth for a given anchor geometry, mass and impact velocity. For assessing anchor vertical holding capacity, a piezocone based direct design approach was also proposed, deriving anchor end bearing and frictional resistance from cone tip resistance and sleeve friction, respectively. Anchor capacity under inclined loading was presented as failure envelopes expressed in terms of dimensionless vertical and horizontal components of anchor net resistance, which agreed well with a finite-element based envelope developed for embedded foundations. The regain of anchor capacity was found to be in good agreement with predictions based on the cavity expansion framework.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)77-90
    JournalGeotechnique
    Volume65
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015

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