BACKGROUND: The addition of budesonide (Bud) 0.25 mg/kg to surfactant decreased the lung and systemic responses to mechanical ventilation in preterm sheep and the rates and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that lower budesonide concentrations in surfactant will decrease injury while decreasing systemic corticosteroid exposure.
METHODS: Preterm lambs received either (1) protective tidal volume (VT) ventilation with surfactant from birth or (2) injurious VT ventilation for 15 min and then surfactant treatment. Lambs were further assigned to surfactant mixed with (i) Saline, (ii) Bud 0.25 mg/kg, (iii) Bud 0.1 mg/kg, or (iv) Bud 0.04 mg/kg. All lambs were then ventilated with protective VT for 6 h.
RESULTS: Plasma Bud levels were proportional to the dose received and decreased throughout ventilation. In both protective and injurious VT ventilation, <4% of Bud remained in the lung at 6 h. Some of the improvements in physiology and markers of injury with Bud 0.25 mg/kg were also found with 0.1 mg/kg, whereas 0.04 mg/kg had only minimal effects.
CONCLUSIONS: Lower doses of Bud were less effective at decreasing lung and systemic inflammation from mechanical ventilation. The plasma Bud levels were proportional to dose given and the majority left the lung.