Do Additional Testing Locations Improve the Detection of Macular Perimetric Defects in Glaucoma?

Giovanni Montesano, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin, Paolo Brusini, Francesco Oddone, Paolo Fogagnolo, Andrea Perdicchi, Chris A Johnson, Paolo Lanzetta, Luca M Rossetti, David F Garway-Heath, David P Crabb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of additional central testing locations to improve detection of macular visual field (VF) defects in glaucoma.

DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred forty healthy people and 499 patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) were tested with a fundus tracked perimeter (CMP; CenterVue) using a 24-2 grid with 12 additional macular locations (24-2+).

METHODS: Glaucomatous optic neuropathy was identified based on expert evaluation of optic nerve head photographs and OCT scans, independently of the VF. We defined macular defects as locations with measurements outside the 5% and 2% normative limits on total deviation (TD) and pattern deviation (PD) maps within the VF central 10°. Classification was based on the total number of affected macular locations (overall detection) or the largest number of affected macular locations connected in a contiguous cluster (cluster detection). Criteria based on the number of locations and cluster size were used to obtain equivalent specificity between the 24-2 grid and the 24-2+ grids, calculated using false detections in the healthy cohort. Partial areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (pAUCs) were also compared at specificities of 95% or more.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Matched specificity comparison of the ability to detect glaucomatous macular defects between the 24-2 and 24-2+ grids.

RESULTS: At matched specificity, cluster detection identified more macular defects with the 24-2+ grid compared with the 24-2 grid. For example, the mean increase in percentage of detection was 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-11%) and 10% (95% CI, 7%-13%) for 5% TD and PD maps, respectively, and 5% (95% CI, 2%-7%) and 6% (95% CI, 4%-8%) for the 2% TD and PD maps, respectively. Good agreement was found between the 2 grids. The improvement measured by pAUCs was also significant but generally small. The percentage of eyes with macular defects ranged from about 30% to 50%. Test time for the 24-2+ grid was longer (21% increase) for both cohorts. Between 74% and 98% of defects missed by the 24-2 grid had at least 1 location with sensitivity of < 20 dB.

CONCLUSIONS: Visual field examinations with additional macular locations can improve the detection of macular defects in GON modestly without loss of specificity when appropriate criteria are selected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1722-1735
Number of pages14
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


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