Successful resolution of infections by intracellular pathogens requires gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). DNA vaccines promote T helper 1 (Th1) responses by triggering interleukin-12 (IL-12) release by dendritic cells (DC) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In humans TLR9 is restricted to plasmacytoid DC. Here we show that DNA-Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primer-booster vaccination, which provides alternative ligands to bind TLR4 on myeloid DC, strongly biases towards Th1 responses compared to vaccination with DNA alone. This results in higher immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) responses compared to IgG1 responses, higher IFN-gamma responses compared to IL-10 CD4(+)-T-cell responses, and enhanced protection against Leishmania major infection in susceptible BALB/c mice.