DNA Mismatch Repair Gene Variant Classification: Evaluating the Utility of Somatic Mutations and Mismatch Repair Deficient Colonic Crypts and Endometrial Glands

on behalf of ANGELS Study

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Abstract

Germline pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes (Lynch syndrome) predispose to colorectal (CRC) and endometrial (EC) cancer. Lynch syndrome specific tumor features were evaluated for their ability to support the ACMG/InSiGHT framework in classifying variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS) in the MMR genes. Twenty-eight CRC or EC tumors from 25 VUS carriers (6xMLH1, 9xMSH2, 6xMSH6, 4xPMS2), underwent targeted tumor sequencing for the presence of microsatellite instability/MMR-deficiency (MSI-H/dMMR) status and identification of a somatic MMR mutation (second hit). Immunohistochemical testing for the presence of dMMR crypts/glands in normal tissue was also performed. The ACMG/InSiGHT framework reclassified 7/25 (28%) VUS to likely pathogenic (LP), three (12%) to benign/likely benign, and 15 (60%) VUS remained unchanged. For the seven re-classified LP variants comprising nine tumors, tumor sequencing confirmed MSI-H/dMMR (8/9, 88.9%) and a second hit (7/9, 77.8%). Of these LP reclassified variants where normal tissue was available, the presence of a dMMR crypt/gland was found in 2/4 (50%). Furthermore, a dMMR endometrial gland in a carrier of an MSH2 exon 1-6 duplication provides further support for an upgrade of this VUS to LP. Our study confirmed that identifying these Lynch syndrome features can improve MMR variant classification, enabling optimal clinical care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4925
JournalCancers
Volume15
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

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