To gain insight into the synthesis and functions of enzymes of starch metabolism in leaves of Arabidopsis L. Heynth, Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze the transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. Under the conditions employed, transitory leaf starch is degraded progressively during a 12-h dark period, and then accumulates during the following 12-h light period. Transcripts encoding enzymes of starch synthesis changed relatively little in amount over 24 h except for two starch synthases, granule bound starch synthase and starch synthase 11, which increased appreciably during the transition from dark to light. The increase in RNA encoding granule-bound starch synthase may reflect the extensive destruction of starch granules in the dark. Transcripts encoding several enzymes putatively involved in starch breakdown showed a coordinated decline in the dark followed by rapid accumulation in the light. Despite marked changes in their transcript levels, the amounts of some enzymes of starch metabolism do not change appreciably through the diurnal cycle. Posttranscriptional regulation is essential in the maintenance of amounts of enzymes and the control of their activities in vivo. Even though the relationships between transcript levels, enzyme activity, and diurnal metabolism of starch metabolism are complex, the presence of some distinctive diurnal patterns of transcripts for enzymes known to be involved in starch metabolism facilitates the identification of other proteins that may participate in this process.