We investigated polymorphisms of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (A, B, and C) loci of a Han population (n, 239) from the Yunnan province, Southwest China, using high-resolution polymerase chain reaction-Luminex (PCR-Luminex) typing. We combined the HLA data from this study with the KIR genotypes from a previous study of this Han population to analyze the combination of KIR/HLA ligands. A total of 27 HLA-A, 54 HLA-B, and 31 HLA-C alleles were found in this population. The frequencies of A11:01, A24:02, B40:01, B46:01, C01:02, C03:04, and C07:02 were all > 10%. The following haplotypes were common, with frequencies > 5%: 1 A-B (A02:07-B46:01), 2 A-C (A02:07-C01:02, and A11:01-C07:02), 4 C-B (B13:01-C03:04, B40:01-C07:02, B46:01-C01:02 and B58:01-C03:02), and 1 A-C-B (A02:07-C01:02-B46:01). Analysis of KIR3D and their ligands HLA-A3/A11 and HLA-Bw4 showed that the frequencies of 3DL2+-A3/A11+ and 3DL2+-A3/A11- were 0.527 and 0.473, and the frequencies of 3DL1+-Bw4+, 3DL1+-Bw4-, 3DL1--Bw4+, and 3DL1--Bw4- were 0.552, 0.397, 0.038, and 0.013, respectively. The results of KIR/HLA-C combination analysis showed that all individuals had at least one inhibitory or activating KIR/HLA-C pair, and one KIR/HLA-C pair was the most frequent (157/239), followed by two pairs (46/239), three pairs (33/239), and no pairs (3/239). Comparison of KIR gene and HLA gene and their pair frequency between Yunnan Han and the isolated Han (FYDH) who also lived in Yunnan province showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in KIR frequencies, but significant differences (P0.05) between the two populations for KIR/HLA pairs. © 2014 Yunsong Shen et al.