Background The data, presented here, come from samples collected during three research projects which aimed to assess the impact of land-use type on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) diversity and community composition in pastures of Terceira Island (Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal) and also in the native forest of two Azorean Islands (Terceira and Sao Miguel; Azores, Macaronesia, Portugal). Both projects contributed to improving the knowledge of AMF community structure at both local and regional scales. New information Little is known on the AMF communities from Azores islands and this study reports the first survey in two Azorean Islands (Terceira and Sao Miguel). A total of 18,733 glomeromycotan spores were classified at the species level from 244 field soil samples collected in three different habitat types-native forests (dominated by Juniperus brevifolia and Picconia azorica), semi-natural and intensively-managed pastures. Thirty-seven distinct spore morphotypes, representing ten glomeromycotan families, were detected. Species of the family Acaulosporaceae dominated the samples, with 13 species (38% of the taxa), followed by Glomeraceae (6 spp.), Diversisporaceae (4 spp.), Archaeosporaceae (3 spp.), Claroideoglomeraceae (3 spp.), Gigasporaceae (3 spp.), Ambisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, both with the same number of AMF species (2 spp.), Sacculosporaceae (1 sp.) and Entrophospora (family insertae sedis). Members of the family Acaulosporaceae occurred almost exclusively in the native forests especially associated with the Picconia azorica rhizosphere, while members of Gigasporaceae family showed a high tendency to occupy the semi-natural pastures and the native forests of Picconia azorica. Members of Glomeraceae family were broadly distributed by all types of habitat which confirm the high ecological plasticity of this AMF family to occupy the more diverse habitats.