This study investigates mechanisms of multiple resistance to glyphosate, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in two Lolium rigidum populations from Australia. When treated with glyphosate, susceptible (S) plants accumulated 4- to 6-fold more shikimic acid than resistant (R) plants. The resistant plants did not have the known glyphosate resistance endowing mutation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSPS) at Pro-106, nor was there over-expression of EPSPS in either of the R populations. However, [14C]-glyphosate translocation experiments showed that the R plants in both populations have altered glyphosate translocation patterns compared to the S plants. The R plants showed much less glyphosate translocation to untreated young leaves, but more to the treated leaf tip, than did the S plants. Sequencing of the carboxyl transferase domain of the plastidic ACCase gene revealed no resistance endowing amino acid substitutions in the two R populations, and the ALS in vitro inhibition assay demonstrated herbicide-sensitive ALS in the ALS R population (WALR70). By using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion and amitrole with ALS and ACCase herbicides, respectively, we showed that malathion reverses chlorsulfuron resistance and amitrole reverses diclofop resistance in the R population examined. Therefore, we conclude that multiple glyphosate, ACCase and ALS herbicide resistance in the two R populations is due to the presence of distinct non-target site based resistance mechanisms for each herbicide. Glyphosate resistance is due to reduced rates of glyphosate translocation, and resistance to ACCase and ALS herbicides is likely due to enhanced herbicide metabolism involving different cytochrome P450 enzymes.
|Journal||Planta - an international journal of plant biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|