Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal of particular concern with respect to the environment and human health. Although intensive studies have been conducted on Cd-exposed transcriptome profiling, little systematic proteome information is available on the molecular mechanism of Cd stress response in radish. In this study, the radish root proteome under Cd stress was investigated using a quantitative multiplexed proteomics approach. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution without Cd (control) or with 10 or 50 mM CdCl2 for 12 h (Cd10 and Cd50, respectively). In total, 91 up- and 66 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd10 comparison, while 340 up- and 286 down-regulated proteins were identified in the control vs Cd50 comparison. Functional annotation indicated that these differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress and defense and signal transduction processes. Correlation analysis showed that 33 DEPs matched with their transcripts, indicating a relatively low correlation between transcript and protein levels under Cd stress. Quantitative real-time PCR evidenced the expression patterns of 12 genes encoding their corresponding DEPs. In particular, several pivotal proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism, ROS scavenging, cell transport and signal transduction were involved in the coordinated regulatory network of the Cd stress response in radish. Root exposure to Cd2+ activated several key signaling molecules and metalcontaining transcription factors, and subsequently some Cd-responsive functional genes were mediated to reduce Cd toxicity and re-establish redox homeostasis in radish. This is a first report on comprehensive proteomic characterization of Cd-exposed root proteomes in radish. These findings could facilitate unraveling of the molecular mechanism underlying the Cd stress response in radish and provide fundamental insights into the development of genetically engineered low-Cd-content radish cultivars.