Objectives To assess the geographic distribution of NHS dental practices in England in relation to deprivation and rurality. Methods A total of 7,851 dental practices in England were included in this study against a population of 53,004,517 from 171,349 statistical areas. The practices were mapped using geographic information systems technology and integrated with census population data, the Index of Multiple Deprivation and the rural-urban classification. Results Results showed that 92.1% of children and adolescents, 91.8% of working-age adults and 88.8% of older adults lived within 2.5 km of a practice. In general, dental practices were not socioeconomically distributed; 99.7% of people from the most deprived areas lived close to a practice compared to 92.9% of people from the least deprived areas. However, when age groups were delineated, much higher proportions of deprived children and adolescents lived within 2.5 km distance from a dental service, while the opposite was true for the older age group (high proportions of the least deprived older adults lived within 2.5 km distance from a dental service). In rural areas, 54.8%, 54.3% and 53.5% of children and adolescents, working-age adults and older adults lived outside 2.5 km of a dental practice, respectively. Conclusions Disparities exist in the distribution of NHS dental practices in England. The need to increase spatial availability of dental practices in England is evident.