Direct numerical simulation of flow past a stationary circular cylinder at yaw angles (α) in the range of 0–60° was conducted at Reynolds number of 1000. The three-dimensional (3-D) Navier–Stokes equations were solved using the Petrov–Galerkin finite element method. The transition of the flow from 2-D to 3-D was studied. The phenomena that were observed in flow visualization, such as the streamwise vortices, the vortex dislocation and the instability of the shear layer, were reproduced numerically. The effects of the yaw angle on wake structures, vortex shedding frequency and hydrodynamic forces of the cylinder were investigated. It was found that the Strouhal number at different yaw angles (α) follows the independence principle. The mean drag coefficient agrees well with the independence principle. It slightly increases with the increase of α and reaches a maximum value at α=60°, which is about 10% larger than that when α=0°. The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) values of the lift coefficient are noticeably dependent on α.
|Journal||Journal of Fluids and Structures|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|