Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability and safety in renal impairment

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    The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of blood glucose-lowering therapy with proven efficacy, tolerability and safety. Four of the five commercially available DPP-4 inhibitors are subject to significant renal clearance, and pharmacokinetic studies in people with renal impairment have led to lower recommended doses based on creatinine clearance in order to prevent drug accumulation. Data from these pharmacokinetic studies and from supratherapeutic doses in healthy individuals and people with uncomplicated diabetes during development suggest, however, that there is a wide therapeutic margin. This should protect against toxicity if people with renal impairment are inadvertently prescribed higher doses than recommended. Doses appropriate to renal function are associated with reductions in HbA1c that are equivalent to those observed in people with type 2 diabetes who do not have renal impairment. Recent large-scale cardiovascular safety trials of saxagliptin and alogliptin have identified heart failure as a potential concern and renal impairment may increase the risk of this complication. Although the incidence of pancreatitis does not appear to be significantly increased by DPP-4 inhibitor therapy, renal impairment is also an independent risk factor. Additional data from other ongoing DPP-4 inhibitor cardiovascular safety trials should provide a more precise assessment of the risks of these uncommon complications, including in people with renal impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)891-899
    JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


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