Differences in Micronutrient Intakes of Exclusive and Partially Breastfed Indonesian Infants from Resource-Poor Households are Not Accompanied by Differences in Micronutrient Status, Morbidity, or Growth

Claudia Leong, Rosalind S Gibson, Aly Diana, Jillian J Haszard, Sofa Rahmannia, Mohammad Brachim Ansari, Lina Sofiatul Inayah, Afini Dwi Purnamasari, Lisa A Houghton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: When maternal micronutrient intakes and statuses are compromised, reductions in micronutrient concentrations in neonatal stores and human milk may result in suboptimal micronutrient intakes, statuses, and functional outcomes of breastfed infants during the critical first 6-month period.

OBJECTIVES: We compared the adequacy of micronutrient intakes and statuses at 2 and/or 5 months and morbidity and growth faltering at 2, 5, and 12 months in a cohort of exclusively breastfed (EBF) and partially breastfed (PBF) infants from low-resource Indonesian households.

METHODS: At 2 and 5 months, the breastfeeding status and human milk intake of 212 infants were determined using the deuterium oxide dose-to-mother technique, and intakes were calculated from milk micronutrient concentrations and 3-d weighed food intakes. At 5 months, five infant micronutrient biomarkers, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid-glycoprotein were measured. Infant morbidity, weight, and length were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months. Means, medians, or proportions were reported for each group and differences between groups were statistically determined.

RESULTS: Median intakes of iron, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B-12 were higher in PBF than EBF infants at 5 months (all P values < 0.05), but intakes in all infants were below adequate intakes. At 5 months, anemia was <20% in both groups, although fewer PBF versus EBF infants had vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5% vs. 28.6%, respectively; P = 0.011). The mean ± SD length-for-age z-scores for EBF versus PBF infants at 2 months were 0.7 ± 0.9 versus -0.5 ± 1.1, respectively (P = 0.158), declining to -1.4 ± 0.9 versus -1.1 ± 1.2, respectively, at 12 months (P = 0.059). Reported morbidity rates were generally low, with no evidence of a difference between infant groups (all P values > 0.126).

CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of exclusive or partial breastfeeding status, micronutrient intakes of infants were low, statuses were compromised, and growth faltering during the critical 6 months period of early infancy was present. The findings highlight the importance of improving maternal nutritional statuses and evaluating their impacts on infant outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-715
Number of pages11
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
Volume151
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Differences in Micronutrient Intakes of Exclusive and Partially Breastfed Indonesian Infants from Resource-Poor Households are Not Accompanied by Differences in Micronutrient Status, Morbidity, or Growth'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this