Differences in aluminum tolerance and immobilization between two indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi Lactarius deliciosus and Pisolithus tinctorius from Southwest China's forest stands

Xirong Gu, Yanan Jiang, Xiaohe Wang, Hao Jia, Jie Li, Yao Cui, Jia Hu, Qiaozhi Mao, Xinhua He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aluminum (Al) toxicity severely decreases plant growth and productivity in acidic soil globally. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can promote host plant's Al-tolerance by acting as a physical barrier or bio-filter. However, little information is available on the role of ECM fungus on Al immobilization with respect to Al-tolerance. This present study aimed to screen a promising indigenous ECM fungus with high Al-tolerance and to understand its role in Al immobilization related to Al-tolerance. Two ECM fungal strains (Lactarius deliciosus 2 and Pisolithus tinctorius 715) isolated from forest stands in Southwest China were cultured in vitro with 0.0, 1.0 or 2.0 mM Al addition for 21 days to compare their Al accumulation and Al-tolerance. Meanwhile, fungal mycelia were incubated in 0.037 mM Al3+ solutions, and then Al3+ concentrations in the solution were determined at time 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min, and the Al3+ immobilization characteristics were evaluated using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results showed that 1.0 or 2.0 mM Al3+ addition significantly increased fungal biomass production by 23% or 41% in L. deliciosus 2, not in P. tinctorius 715. Fungal Al3+ concentrations in L. deliciosus 2 and P. tinctorius 715 were significantly increased by 293% and 103% under 2.0 mM than under 1.0 mM Al3+ addition. The pH values in the culture solution were significantly decreased by 0.43 after 21 d fungus growth but no changes between these two fungi under the same Al3+ addition. Fungal Al3+ immobilization showed a three-stage trend with initially a rapid rate followed a relatively slower rate until reaching equilibrium. The pseudo-second order model was the best (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99 for L. deliciosus 2 and P. tinctorius 715) to fit the experimentally observed data among the three models. Compared to P. tinctorius 715, L. deliciosus 2 also had greater intercept value, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and extracellular Al3+ proportion in fungal mycelia. Additionally, bio-concentration on Al3+, active site numbers for Al3+, boundary layer thickness, CEC, and immobilization on the cell wall in fungal mycelia were involved in ECM fungal Al-tolerance. These results show that both ECM fungi are Al-tolerant while L. deliciosus 2 is a promising indigenous ECM isolate with higher Al-tolerance in Southwest China, and they can be hence applied to the afforestation and ecological restoration in acidic soil.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112042
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume213
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2021

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