Dietary patterns, dietary nutrients and cardiovascular disease

Paul J. Nestel, Trevor A. Mori

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A healthy dietary pattern can benefit multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. In conjunction with current standard-of-care pharmaceutical interventions it can provide an effective strategy for the prevention of CVD. Previous dietary recommendations have focused on targeting macronutrients. However, most of the recent international dietary guidelines now recommend a whole food, dietary pattern approach, whilst avoiding quantitative nutrient advice. The guidelines recommend: (1) increased intake of plant-based foods including complex, fibre-rich carbohydrates such as wholegrains, fruits and vegetables, but restricting the intake of refined starches; (2) substituting saturated fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated oils; (3) reducing salt intake; (4) increased fish consumption (or fish oils where applicable); (5) reducing sugar-sweetened drinks and added sugars; (6) avoiding butter and cream particularly in individuals at increased risk of CVD, but encouraging fermented products such as yoghurt; there is no specific advice on cheese and milk; (7) allowing consumption of lean meat in moderation but restricting processed meats; and (8) reducing cholesterol intake and foods rich in cholesterol (e.g., eggs and crustaceans) for those with diabetes and at increased CVD risk. The dietary guidelines should be adhered to in conjunction with low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, avoiding tobacco and maintaining a healthy weight. This review summarises recently published research, international guidelines and position statements for minimizing CVD risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number017
JournalReviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2022

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