When preferred foods are scarce, one strategy employed by primates is to switch to an alternative food item of lower quality or preferability, i.e., a fallback food. In the montane rainforest of Nyungwe National Park in southwestern Rwanda, Rwenzori black-and-white colobus (Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii) (hereafter Rwenzori colobus) form a supergroup comprising hundreds of individuals. Over 13 mo we investigated how this supergroup uses resources in periods of resource abundance vs. periods of resource scarcity. Based on 5603 feeding records we first identified preferred foods and then identified fallback foods as those food categories or species whose consumption increases when preferred foods, or preferred food categories, are less available. When the availability of 19 preferred food items was low, fruticose lichens (Usnea sp.) contributed >50% of the monthly diet for the Rwenzori colobus. Moreover, consumption of lichens was significantly negatively related to the availability of preferred foods. Fruticose lichens can therefore be considered a fallback food for Rwenzori colobus that sustains the supergroup during periods of reduced food availability. This result, in combination with previous findings that mature foliage in Nyungwe is of high quality and does not elicit feeding competition, points to the importance of resources in facilitating supergroup formation. However, several other montane forests in Eastern Africa also harbor fruticose lichens and yet support only small groups of Angolan colobus, suggesting that additional factors such as sufficient forest size and limited fragmentation and hunting pressure by humans are required for supergroups to form.