Diagnostic yield and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous testicular biopsies in children

Kishore Minhas, Derek J. Roebuck, Neil Sebire, Alexander Cho, Premal A. Patel

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Traditionally, testicular biopsy is performed using an open surgical approach. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy is a less invasive alternative and can be performed in children. Objective: The aim of this study is to report our technique and to assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of testicular masses in children. Materials and methods: This is a 16-year retrospective review of ultrasound-guided percutaneous testicular biopsies at a single pediatric hospital. Results: We performed nine ultrasound-guided testicular biopsies in 9 patients (median age: 3 years, range: 4 months–11 years; median weight: 20.9 kg, range: 8.4–35 kg; median volume of testicular lesion biopsied: 4.4 mL, range: 1.2–17 mL). A percutaneous co-axial technique was used for 5/9 biopsies with absorbable gelatin sponge tract embolization performed in 4 of those biopsies. A non-co-axial technique was used in 4/9 biopsies. A median of three cores, range 2–6, were obtained. The diagnostic yield was 89% with one biopsy yielding material suggestive of, but insufficient for, a definitive diagnosis. The most common histological diagnosis was leukemic infiltration, occurring in 6/9 biopsies. Of the remaining three biopsies, one biopsy was suggestive of, but not confirmatory for, juvenile granulosa cell tumor and two biopsies confirmed normal testicular tissue; the long-term follow-up of which demonstrated normal growth and no lasting damage. There was one (clinically insignificant) complication out of nine biopsies (11%, 95% confidence interval 0–44%): a mild, self-resolving scrotal hematoma. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided testicular biopsy can be performed safely in children as an alternative to open surgical biopsy, with a high diagnostic yield and low complication rate. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1903-1910
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Radiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023

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