Purpose: To systematically evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of intraoral radiographs and evidence supporting the indications for taking of intraoral radiographs in children in the following five clinical categories: caries, pathological conditions (including acute odontogenic infections and periodontal disease), dental/developmental anomalies, dental trauma, and enhancement of comfort/technique for taking radiographs in children. This was carried out to facilitate the updating of existing European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) guidelines on dental radiography in pediatric dentistry. Methods: A systematic electronic literature search was conducted on Cochrane Library (1992–24 July 2018), MEDLINE (PubMed, 1946–24 July 2018), EMBASE (Embase.com, 1974–24 July 2018) and Scopus (pre-1970–24 July 2018). Hand search of handbooks and grey literature search was also performed. Study screening and study inclusions were agreed upon by three authors. Data extraction, and methodological quality and risk of bias assessment were carried out in duplicate for each of the included studies. Results: A total of 9581 papers were identified. Following the primary and secondary assessment process, 36 papers were included in the final analysis. The included studies were further categorized into five main clinical categories for analysis: caries, pathological conditions, dental/developmental anomalies, dental trauma and comfort/technique-related studies. Only one paper was found to be of good quality and at low risk of bias; while, 9 papers were found of be at moderate risk of bias and 26 papers were at high risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible for any of the aforementioned clinical situations, and only a narrative synthesis was done. Conclusion: There is insufficient high-quality evidence for the use of intraoral radiographs in pediatric dentistry and current guidelines are based largely on expert opinion. There is a clear need for well-conducted and standardized studies regarding the use of intraoral radiography in pediatric dentistry.